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Prudent Practices in the Laboratory: Handling and Management of Chemical Hazards: Updated Version.

It counts as a test grade. All work must be completed and turned into me on Monday October 15th before pm. Lewis Dot Structure Video. Polyatomic Ion Slides: PolyatomicIons. Project Details: 2nd 9 weeks project. Chemical Reactions Notes: types of chem reactions.

Animated Science. Episode 1. The Scientific Method.

Jelly Bean Lab: JellyBean. Reactions Worksheet: ChemReactionsWkst. Density slides: density. The Mole Slides: the mole. The Mole Packet Pages , pages mole packet. The Mole Game: molegame. Toy Car Lab: speed-of-a-toy-car. Speed, Velocity, and Acceleration problems: speed velocity acceleration practice. Momentum Slides: Momentum.

Instructions: Write down the masses of each car, the velocities, and explain the outcome for each collision. Roller coaster article: ArticleRollerCoasters. Article report assignment : Read 3 science articles Scientific American, Popular Science, ETC and write a paragraph summarizing each one 3 total paragraphs 5 sentences each. Electricity and Magnetism Slides: Electricity. You haven't observed the fairy. It's not based on any observation, and so this one right over here, this would not be a good hypothesis for the scientific method, so we would wanna rule that one out.

So, let's go back to our testable explanation, our hypothesis. Salt water has a lower freezing point than fresh water. Well, the next step would be to make a prediction based on that, and this is the part where we're really designing an experiment.

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So, you could just view all of this as designing. Let me do this in a different color. Where we wanna design an experiment. Design an experiment. And in that experiments lets say, and let's see, the next two steps I will put as part of this experimental. I messed up. Let me, I did my undo step. So, the next part that I will do is the experiment. And there you go. So, the first thing is, we'll say I take, you know, there's all sorts of things that are going on outside.

The ocean has waves. You know, maybe there are boats going by that might potentially break up the ice.

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So, I just wanna isolate that one variable that I care about, whether something is salt water or not, and I want a control for everything else. So, I want a control for whether there's waves or not or whether there's wind or any other possible explanation for why the pond freezes over faster. So, what I do, in a very controlled environment I take two cups. I take two cups. That's one cup and two cups, and I put water in those cups. I put water in those cups. Now, let's say I start with distilled water, but then this one stays, the first one right over here stays distilled, and distilled means that through evaporation I've taken out all of the impurities of that water, and in the second one I take that distilled water, and I throw a bunch of salt in it.

So, this one is fresh, very fresh, and in fact, far fresher than you would find in a pond. It's distilled water. And then this is over here, this is salt water. So, you wouldn't see the salt, but just for our visuals, you depict it. Then we would make a prediction, and we could even view this as step 4, our prediction.

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  • The scientific method.

We predict that the fresh water will freeze at a higher temperature than the salt water. So, our prediction, let's say the fresh freezes at zero degrees Celsius, but salt doesn't. Salt water doesn't. So, what you then do is that you test your prediction. So, then you test it. And how would you test it? Well, you could have a very accurate freezer that is exactly at zero degrees Celsius, and you put both of these cups into it, and you wanna make sure that they're identical and everything where you control for everything else.

You control for the surface area. You control for the material of the glass. You control for how much water there is. But, then you test it. Then you see what happened from your test. Leave it in overnight, and if you see that the fresh water has frozen over, so it's frozen over, but the salt water hasn't, well then that seems to validate your testable explanation.

That salt water has a lower freezing point than fresh water, and if it didn't freeze, well it's like, okay, well maybe that, or if there isn't a difference, maybe either both of them didn't freeze or both of them did freeze, then you might say, well, okay, that wasn't a good explanation.

I have to find another explanation for why the ocean seems to freeze at a lower temperature.

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Or, you might say, well that's part of the explanation, but that by itself doesn't explain it, or you might now wanna ask even further questions about, well, when does salt water freeze, and what else is it dependent on? Do the waves have an impact?


Does the wind have an impact? So, then you can go into the process of iterating and refining. So, you then refine, refine, refine and iterate on the process. When I'm talking about iterate, you're doing it over again, but then, based on the things that you've learned. So, you might come up with a more refined testable explanation, or you might come up with more experiments that could get you a better understanding of the difference between fresh and salt water, or you might try to come up with experiments for why exactly, what is it about the salt that makes this water harder to freeze?

The scientific method

So, that's essentially the essence of the scientific method, and I wanna emphasize this isn't some, you know, bizarre thing. This is logical reasoning. Make a testable explanation for something that you're observing in the world, and then you test it, and you see if your explanation seems to hold up based on the data from your test. And then whether or not it holds up, you then keep going, and you keep refining.

And you keep learning more about the world, and the reason why this is better than just saying, oh well, look, okay, I see the pond has frozen over and the ocean hasn't, it must be the salt water, and you know, I just feel good about that, is that you can't feel good about that.