New ways of aesthetic expression as well as new forms of social life were being explored. Many people attempted to escape what were perceived as out-dated late 19th century customs. The new approach was associated with, for instance, Cubism, Expressionism and Functionalism which to some extent found their way into garden design [Wolschke-Bulmahn , ]. Willy Lange represented such an approach in landscape architecture.
In a statement shortly before World War I Lange claimed that scientific progress would influence garden design:. Today we have a natural science that is based on the history of development. It teaches us, as far as the interrelations between creatures with their homeland and their fellow creatures are concerned, to understand the laws of life.
Biology penetrates all previous knowledge, which was only superficial. Biology, applied to art, establishes a new, a biological aesthetic [ 29; our translation]. They felt they should prefer native plants in their early 20th century American garden and landscape designs. Some even believed in the exclusive use of native plants. Here we will discuss Miller and Jensen only.
For him:. The prairie style of landscape gardening is an American mode of design based upon the practical needs of the middle-western people and characterized by preservation of typical western scenery, by restoration of local color, and by repetition of the horizontal line of land or sky which is the strongest feature of prairie scenery [ 5]. For Miller:. With his proposal for a regional garden style for the Midwest, Miller reacted against the garden design which had become popular among wealthy garden owners in the North Eastern Atlantic Seaboard in the United States and which he feared would become the prevailing style.
This was along the lines of the subordination of the garden to the surrounding landscape, a landscape which would be able to defend itself against plant-invaders. Jensen believed that ideas about nation, race, and the natural environment are closely interwoven. Perhaps it may be too restricted to design a landscape picture only by the means of simple indigenous plants.
But please consider that it was them amongst whom we grew up, that they taught us a particular language, without interruption since the earliest days of our tribe, that they are interwoven with the soul of our race and, indeed, no art of landscape gardening will be called true art and will be able to reflect the soul of a tribal people, if it does not take its means of expression from the environment of these people [ 68; our translation].
Nothing can take its place. It is given to us when we are born, and with it we live. Art must come from within, and the only source from which the art of landscaping can come is our native landscape.
It cannot be imported from foreign shores and be our own [Jensen 63]. No plant is more refined than that which belongs. There is no comparison between native plants and those imported from foreign shores which are, and shall always remain so, novelties [ ]. But where Seifert still allowed a few less native plants in a garden, Jensen took a more uncompromising position:. Seifert seems to distinguish between the garden inside an enclosure and the landscape — here he submits to compromise [ To be true to yourself, I mean true to your native landscape is a very fundamental issue — it is to be, or not to be.
In the garden you give assent to one idea and outside its boundary to another. Strange things, grotesque things, usually attractive to the novice will creep in and the purity of thoughts in garden making suffers. Freaks are freaks and often bastards — who wants a bastard in the garden, the out of door shrine of your home? Where else would one enjoy what beautiful things we happen to have received from foreign countries?
The garden is a fine barometer by which to judge the intellect of a people. If the garden which is a true expression of the life of a people will not consist of horticultural specimens, rather of a simple arrangement of plants in a harmonious whole — that is art. The other is science or decoration. It takes a higher intellect to create a garden out of a few plants than of many [ ]. Now plant-invaded gardens and landscapes are signs for the lower intellect, i.
The landscape is always a form, an expression and a characteristic of the people [Volk] living within it. It can be gentle countenance of its spirit and soul, just as it can be the grimace of its soullessness [Ungeist] and of human and spiritual depravity. In any case, it is the infallible, distinctive mark of what a people feels, thinks, creates, and acts. It shows, with inexorable severity, whether a people is constructive and a part of the divine creative power or whether destructive forces must be ascribed to it [ 13; our translation].
The gardens that I created myself shall [ They shall express the spirit of America and therefore shall be free of foreign character as far as possible [ The Germanic character of our race, of our cities and settlements was overgrown by foreign character. Latin spirit has spoiled a lot and still spoils things every day [ ; our translation]. In any way Jensen brought forth another category for the myth of plant-invaded gardens and landscapes as he suggested to differentiate between Latin and Germanic race characters.
This may lead to speculate if plants of supposed Germanic origin are entitled to invasion whereas plants of Latin origin are not. Two examples might illustrate this. Rhododendrons in the gas chambers! Kristallnacht against Kudzu! William R. Several times in the past few years I have been brought up short by the suggestion that ecological restoration is a form of nativism — the ecological version of the sort of racist policies espoused by the Nazis or the Ku Klux Klan. Like the Nazis and the Klan, restorationists espouse the exclusion and removal of immigrants, and even a program to ensure genetic purity of stock in order to protect the integrity of the native, the true-born, the Blut und Boden.
Hence restoration offers a disturbing resemblance in the ecological sphere to policies of nativism, racism, and sexism in the social sphere — so the argument goes [ ]. The history of garden culture provides ample evidence for the multitude of connections between people, politics, design, and plants. Such calls transmit reactionary ideas about nature, the design of gardens, parks, and other open spaces as well as about society.
Rather a scholarly discussion about plants, trees, shrubs, their value and their significance for design should develop, and for that a look into history may be helpful.
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There is no need to glorify historical events. Professional development could profit from critical analyses of the works and the ideas of predecessors in biology, botany, garden and landscape design. Certainly there is no need for plant-invasion related mythology. He wrote in If this kind of garden-owning barbarian became the rule, then neither a gillyflower nor a rosemary, neither a peach-tree nor a myrtle sampling nor a tea-rose would ever have crossed the Alps. Gardens connect people, time and latitudes. If these barbarians ruled, the great historic process of acclimatization would never have begun and today we would horticulturally still subsist on acorns [ It is not the only democracy which such clumsy advocates threaten to dehumanize [ ; our translation].
They grew in certain locations and became extinct and grew again somewhat modified in new locations. Of the many hundred thousands of years the last have seen a human interest to learn about the distribution of plants.
Closer observation within the last half century revealed that even plants are not as static as some would have it. Borchardt, R. Braun-Blanquet, J.
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Natural Garden Design in the Twentieth Century. XVIII: Washington DC. Graebner, P. Versuch einer Formationsgliederung. Berlin: Volume Der Drang nach Osten. Volume 9. Biographisches Handbuch zur Landschaftsarchitektur des Jahrhunderts in Deutschland. Haas, V. Hackforth, R. Translated with an Introduction and Commentary. Cambridge, UK. Haeckel, E.
Erster Band: Allgemeine Anatomie der Organismen. Hennebo, D. Hoke, G. Magistrat der Stadt Magdeburg, Dezernat Umwelt ed.
Hudson, J. Exotics: The Myth of the Menace. Redwood City, CA. Hugonot, J. Francfort am Main. Humboldt, A. Ickes, H. Jens Jensen Collection. Sterling Morton Library. Lisle, Ill. Jensen, J. A Letter to a Friend in Germany, Jordan III, W. Kahn, L. New Haven, Conn. Keimer, L. Koller, G. Lange, W. Leland, J. Plant and Animal Imports into America. Columbia, South Carolina. Mangin, A. Miller, W. College of Agriculture, University of Illinois, Urbana. Murray, A. North, E. Parkinson, J. Potonie, H. Botanischen Garten zu Berlin. Rehmann, E. Rikli, M. Karsten ed. Sauer, L. Schneider, C. Seifert, A.
Sorvig, K. Stauffer, R. Theodoropoulos, D. Critique of a Pseudoscience. Harry Potter. Popular Features. New Releases. In this fully illustrated guide, the author defines and explains common style choices that will satisfy the esthetic preferences of a wide range of tastes. Regional and maintenance issues such as soil quality, temperature, and weather conditions are considered and explained. In each chapter, a color photograph of a particular type of garden style provides a "snapshot" of its major character traits, plant types and format.
Inspiration beckons from every page! Certain gardens can only be grown in specific regions of the country and gardeners with interests in attracting specific birds or butterflies will do better with some garden selections than with others. Paging through the beautiful photographs in this guide enables the reader to eliminate gardens that are impractical so that more practical choices can be considered. If you are confused, perplexed and overwhelmed at the thought of selecting one specific gardening style to cultivate, this detailed, organized and informative guide will help you sift through a wide range of beautiful and popular gardening styles to make your final decision an easier one.
You might even settle on two garden styles and meld them together to make your own very special garden. Rating details.